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Aktuelles Rund Ums Auto – Ökologisierung Des Fahrens

Aktuelles rund ums Auto – Ökologisierung des Fahrens


Die Umstellung des Messverfahrens von CO2-Emissionen auf das neue Abgasprüfverfahren WLTP, das das bisherige NEFZ-Verfahren ablöst, bedeutet in einigen Fällen eine nicht unwesentliche Verteuerung. Denn daran knüpfen Änderungen bei der Normverbrauchsabgabe (NoVA) anlässlich des Kaufs, bei der motorbezogenen Versicherungssteuer für die gesamte Lebensdauer des Kfz und beim Sachbezug für die Privatnutzung des Dienstautos an.

Neuregelung der NoVA per 1.1.2020

Für die Berechnung der Normverbrauchsabgabe (NoVA) für Kraftfahrzeuge ist ab dem 1.1.2020 folgende Formel anzuwenden: (CO2-Emissionswert in g/km – 115) / 5 = Steuersatz in %. Der Höchststeuersatz beträgt unverändert 32%, wobei bei CO2 Emissionen über 275 g/km ein Malus von € 40 je übersteigendem Gramm anfällt. Der Betrag der NoVA-Berechnung wird um einen Abzugsposten von € 350 reduziert. Der CO2 -Freibetrag von 115 g/km in obiger Berechnungsformel wird ab 1.1.2021 jährlich um 3 g/km gesenkt.

Die Neuregelung findet grundsätzlich auf alle nach dem 31.12.2019 bewirkten NoVA-Tatbestände wie insbesondere Lieferung und ig Erwerb Anwendung. Eine Wahlmöglichkeit gilt für jene Tatbestände, wo vor dem 1.12.2019 ein unwiderruflicher schriftlicher Kaufvertrag abgeschlossen wurde und die Lieferung bzw der ig Erwerb des Fahrzeugs vor dem 1.6.2020 erfolgt. Für diese Fahrzeuge kann die alte Rechtslage angewendet werden.

Beispiel:

Marke Motor Preis

CO2 g/km NoVA alt NoVA neu Differenz
NEFZ WLTP % %
VW Polo 1,6 TDI 17.000 99 129 2% 40 3% 160  120
Skoda Octavia Kombi 1,6 TDI 23.000 108 126 4% 620 2% 110 -510
Audi Q 5 35 TDI ultra quattro 39.000 144 188 11% 3.990 15% 5.500 1.510

Die Tabelle zeigt, dass bei einer Standardmotorisierung sogar ein Rückgang der Steuerbelastung entsteht, andererseits für leistungsstarke Fahrzeuge, deren Co2-Wert nach der Umstellung um mehr als 25 g/km ansteigt, die alte Rechtslage vorteilhafter ist.

Motorbezogene Versicherungssteuer

Die grundlegende Systemänderung, mit der auch der ökologische Faktor CO2-Ausstoß berücksichtigt wird, tritt bei der Berechnung der motorbezogenen Versicherungssteuer (vulgo „Kfz-Steuer“) bei der Erstzulassungen von PKW unter 3,5 Tonnen allerdings erst ab dem 1.10. 2020 in Kraft. Die neue Formel lautet: (kW- 65) x 0,72 + (CO2 -115) x 0,72 = monatliche Steuer. Auch hier soll der Abzugsbetrag für den CO2-Ausstoß jährlich um 3 g/km bzw für die Motorleistung jährlich um 1 kW ab 2021 absinken. Der monatliche Mindestbetrag ist mit € 7,20 festgelegt. Der Zuschlag für die monatliche, vierteljährliche oder halbjährliche Zahlungsweise entfällt künftig. Die Neuregelung findet nur auf KFZ mit erstmaliger Zulassung nach dem 30.9.2020 Anwendung. Für davor erstmalig zugelassene KFZ bleibt das alte Berechnungsschema zeitlich unbegrenzt erhalten.

Sachbezugswerte für Dienstautos ab 2020

Besteht für den Dienstnehmer die Möglichkeit der Nutzung des arbeitgebereigenen Fahrzeugs für Privatfahrten, ist ein Sachbezugswert anzusetzen. Dieser richtet sich nach dem Erstzulassungsdatum im EU-Raum. Da die Übernahme der nach dem WLTP-Verfahren ermittelten CO2-Emisionswerte in die Zulassungsdatenbank flächendeckend erst mit 31.3.2020 finalisiert werden kann, gilt hinsichtlich der Sachbezugswerte 2020 folgende Regelung:

  • Für Erstzulassungen von PKW bis zum 31.3.2020 ist weiterhin die für das Jahr 2019 geltende Regelung übergangsweise anzuwenden. Das bedeutet, für Anschaffungen ab 1.1.2020 ist weiterhin die Grenze von 118 g/km anwendbar.
  • Für Erstzulassungen ab dem 1.4.2020 und im Typen- bzw Zulassungsschein ausgewiesenen WLTP-Emissionswerten ist die Neuregelung anzuwenden. Die CO2-Emissionswert-Grenze für das Jahr 2020 liegt bei 141 g/km.
  • Für Erstzulassungen ab dem 1.4.2020 ohne im Typen- bzw Zulassungsschein ausgewiesenen WLTP-Emissionswerten ist unbefristet auf die CO2-Emissionswert-Grenze von 118 g/km entsprechend der bisherigen Regelung
Sachbezug Fahrzeugtyp CO2-Wert im Zeitpunkt der Erstzulassung € max pm
nach NEFZ NEU: nach WLTP
2% alle PKW und Hybridfahrzeuge über 118 g/km über 141 g/km € 960
1,5% ökologische PKW und Hybridfahrzeuge Bei Erstzulassung bis

2016: bis 130 g/km

2017: bis 127 g/km

2018: bis 124 g/km

2019: bis 121 g/km

31.3.2020: bis 118 g/km

Bei Erstzulassung ab

1.4.2020: bis 141 g/km

2021: bis 138 g/km

2022: bis 135 g/km

2023: bis 132 g/km

2024: bis 129 g/km

2025: bis 126 g/km

€ 720
0% Elektroautos 0 g/km 0 g/km € 0

 

Interessant für jene Dienstnehmer, die Kostenbeiträge für ihr Dienstauto leisten, ist eine Entscheidung des BFG. Das BFG vertritt die Ansicht, dass diese Zuzahlungen direkt den Sachbezugswert vermindern und nicht die Anschaffungskosten des PKW. Allerdings wurde dagegen Amtsrevision erhoben

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. Die höchstgerichtliche Entscheidung bleibt daher abzuwarten.

Erfreulich ist jedenfalls die Klarstellung, dass E-Bikes so wie „normale“ Fahrräder keinem Sachbezug unterliegen.

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